Momordica charantia polysaccharides ameliorate oxidative stress, hyperlipidemia, inflammation, and apoptosis during myocardial infarction by inhibiting the NF-κB signaling pathway.
Int J Biol Macromol. 2017 Jan 18. Epub 2017 Jan 18. PMID: 28109806
The polysaccharide extract of Momordica charantia has various biological activities; however, its effect on endothelial dysfunction in myocardial infarction remains unclear. To elucidate this, myocardial infarction was induced in rats using isoproterenol (ISP). Pretreatment with M. charantia polysaccharides (MCP; 150 or 300mg/kg) for 25days significantly inhibited increases in heart weight, the heart-weight-to-body-weight ratio, and infarction size, and ameliorated the increased serum levels of aspartate transaminase, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, total cholesterol, triglycerides, very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. In addition, MCP enhanced the activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and non-protein sulfhydryls, and decreased the level of lipid peroxidation. Moreover, MCP pretreatment downregulated the expression of proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-10), inflammatory markers (nitric oxide, myeloperoxidase, and inducible nitric oxide synthase), and apoptotic markers (caspase-3 and BAX), and upregulated Bcl-2 expression. Pretreatment with MCP reduced myonecrosis, edema, and inflammatory cell infiltration, and restored cardiomyocytes architecture. This myocardial protective effect could be related to the enhancement of the antioxidant defense system through the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB) pathways, and to anti-apoptosis through regulation of Bax, caspase-3, and Bcl-2.