Murrayanine Induces Cell Cycle Arrest, Oxidative Stress, and Inhibition of Phosphorylated p38 Expression in A549 Lung Adenocarcinoma Cells.
Med Sci Monit. 2019 Mar 17 ;25:2002-2008. Epub 2019 Mar 17. PMID: 30879017
BACKGROUND Murrayanine is a carbazole alkaloid derived from Murraya koenigii, which has been used in traditional Chinese medicine in the treatment of cancer. This study aimed to investigate the effects of murrayanine on human lung adenocarcinoma cells in vitro and to investigate the mechanisms of its action. MATERIAL AND METHODS A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells and MRC-5 human lung fibroblasts were grown in culture, and an MTT assay determined cell viability. Cells were treated for 24 h with increasing doses of murrayanine (0, 9, 18, and 36µM). Fluorescence, using 4', 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI), acridine orange, ethidium bromide, and propidium iodide (PI), were used for the detection of apoptosis. The cell cycle was studied with fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), and Western blot evaluated protein expression. RESULTSMurrayanine treatment resulted in significant dose-dependent inhibition of the growth of A549 cells (p<0.05), with an IC₅₀ of 9 µM, and arrested the cells at the G2/M phase of the cell cycle, reduced the expression of cyclin D and E, CDK2, 4, and 6, and increased the expression of p21 and p27. Murrayanine treatment increased apoptosis of the A549 cells and increased cleaved of caspase-3 and caspase-9, and the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. Murrayanine treatment increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), disrupted the mitochondrial membrane potential, inhibited invasion, and inhibited phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) of the A549 cells. CONCLUSIONS Murrayanine induced cell cycle arrest, oxidative stress, and inhibited the expression of phosphorylated p38 in A549 adenocarcinoma cells.