Effect of N-acetylcysteine on mucosal immunity of respiratory tract.
Ter Arkh. 2018 Apr 19 ;90(3):89-95. PMID: 30701862
O V Kalyuzhin
The outcome of diseases accompanied or caused by mucostasis depends both on the restoration of drainage function of the airways and on the effectiveness of immune mechanisms against pathogens. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is widely used as mucolytic and antioxidant remedy in clinical practice. In this regard, the data of the scientific literature on the direct and indirect effects of NAC on the mucosal immunity of the respiratory tract have been reviewed. NAC possesses pleiotropic immunomodulating properties, most of which contribute to the regression of clinical manifestations of acute and chronic inflammatory diseases of the respiratory tract. Biological and pharmacological effects of NAC include improvement in rheological properties of mucus, reduction of excess mucin production, restoration of mucociliary clearance and production of sIgA, suppression of excess production of IgE and IgG4, destruction of biofilms and inhibition of their formation, suppression of adhesion of pathogenic bacteria to epithelial cells, antioxidant activity, regulation of the production of pro-inflammatory and profibrotic cytokines. There was no convincing evidence that NAC is able to suppress any component of mucosal immunity. For final conclusions on this subject, further research are required.