NAC should be considered in management of anti-tuberculosis drug induced liver injury. - GreenMedInfo Summary
A Randomized Controlled Trial of Intravenous N-acetylcysteine in the Management of Anti-tuberculosis Drug-Induced Liver Injury.
Clin Infect Dis. 2020 Aug 26. Epub 2020 Aug 26. PMID: 32845997
Muhammed S Moosa
BACKGROUND: Liver injury is a common complication of first-line anti-tuberculosis therapy. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is widely used in patients with paracetamol toxicity with limited evidence of benefit in liver injury due to other causes.
METHODS: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to assess whether intravenous NAC hastens liver recovery in hospitalized adult patients with anti-tuberculosis drug induced liver injury (AT-DILI). The primary endpoint was the time for serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) to fall below 100 U/L. Secondary endpoints included length of hospital stay, in-hospital mortality and adverse events.
RESULTS: Fifty-three participants were randomized to NAC and 49 to placebo. Mean age was 38 (SD±10) years, 58 (57%) were female and 89 (87%) were HIV-positive. Median serum ALT and total bilirubin at presentation were 462 U/L (IQR 266-790) and 56 μmol/L (IQR 25-100) respectively. Median time to ALT&100 U/L was 7.5 days (IQR 6 -11) in the NAC arm and 8 days (IQR 5 -13) in the placebo arm. Median time to hospital discharge was shorter in the NAC arm (9 days; IQR 6-15) than in the placebo arm (18 days; IQR 10-25), hazard ratio 1.73 (95% CI 1.13-2.65). Mortality was 14% overall and did not differ by study arm. The study infusion was stopped early due to an adverse reaction in 5 participants receiving NAC [nausea and vomiting (3), anaphylaxis (1), pain at drip site (1)].
CONCLUSION: NAC did not shorten time to ALT&100 U/L in participants with AT-DILI, but significantly reduced length of hospital stay. NAC should be considered in management of AT-DILI.