Naringin Attenuates Cerebral Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury Through Inhibiting Peroxynitrite-Mediated Mitophagy Activation.
Mol Neurobiol. 2018 Dec ;55(12):9029-9042. Epub 2018 Apr 7. PMID: 29627876
Excessive autophagy/mitophagy plays important roles during cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. Peroxynitrite (ONOO), a representative reactive nitrogen species, mediates excessive mitophagy activation and exacerbates cerebral I/R injury. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that naringin, a natural antioxidant, could inhibit ONOO-mediated mitophagy activation and attenuate cerebral I/R injury. Firstly, we demonstrated that naringin possessed strong ONOOscavenging capability and also inhibited the production of superoxide and nitric oxide in SH-SY5Y cells exposed to 10 h oxygen-glucose-deprivation plus 14 h of reoxygenation or ONOOdonor 3-morpholinosydnonimine conditions. Naringin also inhibited the expression of NADPH oxidase subunits and iNOS in rat brains subjected to 2 h ischemia plus 22 h reperfusion. Next, we found that naringin was able to cross the blood-brain barrier, and naringin decreased neurological deficit score, reduced infarct size, and attenuated apoptotic cell death in the ischemia-reperfused rat brains. Furthermore, naringin reduced 3-nitrotyrosine formation, decreased the ratio of LC3-II to LC3-I in mitochondrial fraction, and inhibited the translocation of Parkin to the mitochondria. Taken together, naringin could be a potential therapeutic agent to prevent the brain from I/R injury via attenuating ONOO-mediated excessive mitophagy.