Protective effects of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) leaf extract against cigarette smoke- and lipopolysaccharide-induced pulmonary inflammation.
Int J Mol Med. 2017 Dec ;40(6):1932-1940. Epub 2017 Oct 10. PMID: 29039495
Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) leaf has been reported to exert anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and antioxidant effects. The purpose of this study was to investigate the protective effects of neem leaf extract (NLE) against cigarette smoke (CS)- and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced pulmonary inflammation. Treatment with NLE significantly attenuated the infiltration of inflammatory cells, such as neutrophils and macrophages in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). NLE also reduced the production of reactive oxygen species and the activity of neutrophil elastase in BALF. Moreover, NLE attenuated the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin (IL)-6 in BALF. NLE inhibited the recruitment of inflammatory cells and the expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) in the lungs of mice with CS- and LPS-induced pulmonaryinflammation. NLE also decreased the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the lungs of the mice CS- and LPS-induced pulmonary inflammation. Furthermore, treatment with NLE significantly attenuated the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-Jun N-terminalkinase (JNK) in the lungs mice exposed to CS and LPS. NLE also inhibited the phosphorylation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB and inhibitor of NF-κB (IκB) in the lungs of mice expose to CS and LPS. These findings thus suggest that NLE has potential for use in the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.