Inhibitory effects of Nelumbo nucifera leaves on rat lens aldose reductase, advanced glycation endproducts formation, and oxidative stress.
Food Chem Toxicol. 2008 Dec;46(12):3818-26. Epub 2008 Oct 10. PMID: 18952135
The preventive and therapeutic potency against oxidative stress and diabetic complications of Nelumbo nucifera were evaluated via the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), and total reactive oxygen species (ROS) assays, as well as the rat lens aldose reductase (RLAR) and advanced glycation endproducts (AGE) assays. The leaf extract of N. nucifera exerted potent antioxidant effects as well as marked inhibitory effects for RLAR and AGE formation, corresponding to high values for total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC). Among several solvent fractions, the EtOAc and n-BuOH fractions, having prominent TPC and TFC values, showed significant antioxidant effects in the DPPH and TEAC assays. Moreover, the EtOAc fraction exhibited superior inhibitory effects in the total ROS, RLAR, and AGE assays, with IC(50) values of 9.4, 2.4, and 28.2microg/ml, respectively. Also, the HPLC profiles of the active EtOAc fraction indicated that quercetin 3-O-beta-d-glucopyranoside (Qc-3-Glc) and Qc 3-O-beta-d-glucuronopyranoside (Qc-3-Gln) were two of its major components, as well as Qc 3-O-beta-d-galactopyranoside (Qc-3-Gal) as a minor compound. Therefore, the results suggest that two key antioxidant flavonoids, Qc-3-Glc and Qc-3-Gln, may play important roles in the antioxidant and RLAR inhibitory effects of N. nucifera leaves. Also, the leaves, and the flavonoids contained within them, would clearly have potential uses in the development of therapeutic or preventive agents for diabetic complications and oxidative stress-related diseases.