Fall-related factors and risk of hip fracture: the EPIDOS prospective study.
Lancet. 1996 Jul 20;348(9021):145-9. PMID: 8684153
INSERM, Unité 149, Villejuif, France.
BACKGROUND: Most hip fractures result from falls. However, the role of fall-related factors has seldom been examined. Comparison of the predictive value of these factors with that of bone mineral density (BMD) has important implications for the prevention of hip fractures. METHODS: We assessed femoral-neck BMD by dual-photon X-ray absorptiometry and potential fall-related risk factors, which included self-reported physical capacity, neuromuscular function, mobility, visual function, and use of medication in 7575 women, aged 75 years or older, with no history of hip fracture recruited at five centres in France. We followed up these women every 4 months to record incident hip fractures. During an average of 1.9 years of follow-up 154 women suffered a first hip fracture. FINDINGS: In age-adjusted multivariate analyses, we found four independent fall-related predictors of hip fracture: slower gait speed (relative risk = 1 . 4 for 1 SD decrease [95% Cl 1.1-1.6)]; difficulty in doing a tandem (heel-to-toe) walk (1.2 for 1 point on the difficulty score [1.0-1.5]); reduced visual acuity (2.0 for acuity