Neuroprotective effects of urolithin A on HO-induced oxidative stress-mediated apoptosis in SK-N-MC cells.
Nutr Res Pract. 2020 Feb ;14(1):3-11. Epub 2019 Oct 18. PMID: 32042368
Kkot Byeol Kim
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Oxidative stress causes cell damage and death, which contribute to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. Urolithin A (UA), a gut microbial-derived metabolite of ellagitannins and ellagic acid, has high bioavailability and various health benefits such as antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. However, it is unknown whether it has protective effects against oxidative stress-induced cell death. We investigated whether UA ameliorates HO-induced neuronal cell death.
MATERIALS/METHODS: We induced oxidative damage with 300µM HOafter UA pretreatment at concentrations of 1.25, 2.5, and 5µM in SK-N-MC cells. Cytotoxicity and cell viability were determined using the CCK-8 assay. The formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was measured using a 2,7-dichlorofluorescein diacetate assay. Hoechst 33342 staining was used to characterize morphological changes in apoptotic cells. The expressions of apoptosis proteins were measured using Western blotting.
RESULTS: UA significantly increased cell viability and decreased intracellular ROS production in a dose-dependent manner in SK-N-MC cells. It also decreased the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and the expressions of cytochrome c, cleaved caspase-9, cleaved caspase-3, and cleaved PARP. In addition, it suppressed the phosphorylation of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway.
CONCLUSIONS: UA attenuates oxidative stress-induced apoptosis via inhibiting the mitochondrial-related apoptosis pathway and modulating the p38 MAPK pathway, suggesting that it may be an effective neuroprotective agent.