The neuroprotective potential of carotenoids in vitro and in vivo. - GreenMedInfo Summary
The neuroprotective potential of carotenoids in vitro and in vivo.
Phytomedicine. 2021 Jul 21 ;91:153676. Epub 2021 Jul 21. PMID: 34339943
BACKGROUND: Despite advances in research on neurodegenerative diseases, the pathogenesis and treatment response of neurodegenerative diseases remain unclear. Recent studies revealed a significant role of carotenoids to treat neurodegenerative diseases. The aim of this study was to systematically review the neuroprotective potential of carotenoids in vivo and in vitro and the molecular mechanisms and pathological factors contributing to major neurodegenerative diseases (Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and stroke).
HYPOTHESIS: Carotenoids as therapeutic molecules to target neurodegenerative diseases.
RESULTS: Aggregation of toxic proteins, mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, the excitotoxic pathway, and neuroinflammation were the major pathological factors contributing to the progression of neurodegenerative diseases. Furthermore, in vitro and in vivo studies supported the beneficiary role of carotenoids, namely lycopene,β-carotene, crocin, crocetin, lutein, fucoxanthin and astaxanthin in alleviating disease progression. These carotenoids provide neuroprotection by inhibition of neuro-inflammation, microglial activation, excitotoxic pathway, modulation of autophagy, attenuation of oxidative damage and activation ofdefensive antioxidant enzymes. Additionally, studies conducted on humans also demonstrated that dietary intake of carotenoids lowers the risk of neurodegenerative diseases.
CONCLUSION: Carotenoids may be used as drugs to prevent and treat neurodegenerative diseases. Although, the in vitro and in vivo results are encouraging, further well conducted clinical studies on humans are required to conclude about the full potential of neurodegenerative diseases.