Nonsaponin fraction of Korean Red Ginseng attenuates cytokine production via inhibition of TLR4 expression.
J Ginseng Res. 2019 Apr ;43(2):291-299. Epub 2018 Apr 4. PMID: 30976167
Background: Ginsenosides of Korean Red Ginseng extracts (RGE) and its saponin components suppress secretion of inflammasome-mediating cytokines, whereas the nonsaponin fraction (NS) of RGE oppositely stimulates cytokine secretion. Although direct exposure of NS to macrophages in mice induces cytokine production, oral administration of NS has not been studied in inflammasome-related disease in animal models.
Methods: Mice were fed RGE or NS for 7 days and then developed peritonitis. Peritoneal cytokines were measured, and peritoneal exudate cells (PECs) were collected to assay expression levels of a set of toll-like receptors (TLRs) and cytokines in response to NS ingestion. In addition, the role of intestinal bacteria in NS-fed mice was assessed. The effect of preexposure to NS in bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) on cytokine production was further confirmed.
Results: NS ingestion attenuated secretion of peritoneal cytokines resulting from peritonitis. In addition, the isolated PECs from NS-fed mice presented lower TLR transcription levels than PECs from control diet-fed mice. BMDMs treated with NS showed downregulation of TLR4 mRNA and protein expression, which was mediated by the TLR4-MyD88-NFκB signal pathway. BMDMs pretreated with NS produced less cytokines in response to TLR4 ligands.
Conclusion: NS administration directly inhibits TLR4 expression in inflammatory cells such as macrophages, thereby reducing secretion of cytokines during peritonitis.