The effect of a novel curcumin derivative on pancreatic islet regeneration in experimental type-1 diabetes in rats (long term study).
Diabetol Metab Syndr. 2013 ;5(1):75. Epub 2013 Nov 26. PMID: 24279645
Mohamed T Abdel Aziz
BACKGROUND: Several studies highlight curcumin's benefit as a hypoglycemic agent, however; a limited number of reports present the importance of curcumin in improvement of pancreatic islets in diabetes. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the antidiabetic effect of a novel curcumin derivative and its effect on pancreatic islet regeneration in type I diabetes-induced by STZ.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rats were divided into diabetic rats and diabetic rats treated orally with the novel curcumin derivative (NCD) for 40 days. Fasting blood samples were withdrawn periodically from all rats to estimate plasma glucose, insulin and C-peptide for 10 months. Histopathology was performed to allow the assessment of pancreatic islet morphology. Insulin and CD105 were detected immunohistochemically.
RESULTS: In diabetic rats, the plasma glucose, insulin and C-peptide levels remained within the diabetic range for about 4 months, after which a gradual decrease in glucose and increase in insulin and C-peptide was observed, which reached almost normal levels after 10 months. NCD treated diabetic rats showed significantly lowered plasma glucose and increased plasma insulin and C-peptide levels. This was followed by a further significant decrease in plasma glucose and increase in plasma insulin and C-peptide after two months from oral administration of the NCD. The plasma insulin and C-peptide continued to increase for ten months reaching levels significantly higher than the basal level. Histopathological examination of diabetic rat pancreas revealed absence of islets of Langerhans, minimal adipose tissue infiltration and localized lymphocytic infiltrates. However, after 6 months of induction of diabetes, rat pancreas showed the appearance of small well formed islets and positive insulin cells but no CD105 positive cells. NCD treated rats showed the appearance of primitive cell collections, large insulin positive cells and CD105 positive cells in the adipose tissue infiltrating the pancreatic tissues. This was followed by the gradual appearance of insulin positive cells in the islets while, CD 105 positive cells remained in the adipose tissue. After 5 and 10 months from the onset of diabetes, rat pancreas showed, well developed larger sized islets with disappearance of primitive cell collections and CD 105 positive cells. Also, insulin positive islets of variable size with disappearance of insulin positive cells in adipose tissue were detected.
CONCLUSION: The NCD possesses antidiabetic actions and enhanced pancreatic islets regeneration.