Nut consumption may be beneficial in the prevention of metabolic syndrome and obesity. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Nut consumption and risk of metabolic syndrome and overweight/obesity: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies and randomized trials.
Nutr Metab (Lond). 2018 ;15:46. Epub 2018 Jun 22. PMID: 29977320
Background: Nut consumption has been shown to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. However, its role in the prevention of metabolic disorders, such as metabolic syndrome (Mets) and overweight/obesity, remains controversial. We therefore conducted a meta-analysis to determine the association of nut consumption with Mets and overweight/obesity.
Methods: Eligible studies were identified by searching the PubMed and Embase databases and by reviewing the references of relevant literatures. We used random effect models to pool the studies-specific risk ratio (RR) and weighted mean difference (WMD).
Results: This meta-analysis included six prospective cohort studies with 420,890 subjects and 62 randomized feeding trials with 7184 participants. Among the cohort studies, the summary RR for every 1-serving/week increase in nut intake was 0.96 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.92 to 0.99; = 3) for Mets, 0.97 (95% CI: 0.95 to 0.98; = 2) for overweight/obesity, and 0.95 (95% CI: 0.89 to 1.02; n = 2) for obesity. Pooling of randomized trials indicated that nut consumption was related to a significant reduction in body weight (WMD: - 0.22 Kg, 95% CI: -0.40 to - 0.04), body mass index (WMD: - 0.16 Kg/m, 95% CI: -0.31 to - 0.01), and waist circumference (WMD: - 0.51 cm, 95% CI: -0.95 to - 0.07). These findings remained stable in the sensitivity analysis, and no publication bias was detected.
Conclusion: Nut consumption may be beneficial in the prevention of Mets and overweight/obesity. Additional prospective studies are needed to enhance these findings and to explore the metabolic benefits for specific subclasses of nut.