Newcastle Disease Virus-Based Vectored Vaccine against Poliomyelitis.
J Virol. 2018 09 1 ;92(17). Epub 2018 Aug 16. PMID: 29925653
Ekaterina G Viktorova
The poliovirus eradication initiative has spawned global immunization infrastructure and dramatically decreased the prevalence of the disease, yet the original virus eradication goal has not been met. The suboptimal properties of the existing vaccines are among the major reasons why the program has repeatedly missed eradication deadlines. Oral live poliovirus vaccine (OPV), while affordable and effective, occasionally causes the disease in the primary recipients, and the attenuated viruses rapidly regain virulence and can cause poliomyelitis outbreaks. Inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) is safe but expensive and does not induce the mucosal immunity necessary to interrupt virus transmission. While the need for a better vaccine is widely recognized, current efforts are focused largely on improvements to the OPV or IPV, which are still beset by the fundamental drawbacks of the original products. Here we demonstrate a different design of an antipoliovirus vaccine based onproduction of virus-like particles (VLPs). The poliovirus capsid protein precursor, together with a protease required for its processing, are expressed from a Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vector, a negative-strand RNA virus with mucosal tropism. In this system, poliovirus VLPs are produced in the cells of vaccine recipients and are presented to their immune systems in the context of active replication of NDV, which serves as a natural adjuvant. Intranasal administration of the vectored vaccine to guinea pigs induced strong neutralizing systemic and mucosal antibody responses. Thus, the vectored poliovirus vaccine combines the affordability and efficiency of a live vaccine with absolute safety, since no full-length poliovirus genome is present at any stage of the vaccine life cycle.A new, safe, and effective vaccine against poliovirus is urgently needed not only to complete the eradication of the virus but also to be used in the future to prevent possible virus reemergence in a postpolio world. Currently, new formulations of the oral vaccine, as well as improvements to the inactivated vaccine, are being explored. In this study, we designed a viral vector with mucosal tropism that expresses poliovirus capsid proteins. Thus, poliovirus VLPs are produced, in the cells of a vaccine recipient, and are presented to the immune system in the context of vector virus replication, stimulating the development of systemic and mucosal immune responses. Such an approach allows the development of an affordable and safe vaccine that does not rely on the full-length poliovirus genome at any stage.