Neuroprotective and anticonvulsant effects of organic and conventional purple grape juices on seizures in Wistar rats induced by pentylenetetrazole.
Neurochem Int. 2012 Mar 24. Epub 2012 Mar 24. PMID: 22465942
Instituto de Biotecnologia, Universidade de Caxias do Sul (UCS), Caxias do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
Epilepsy is the most common neurological disorder worldwide. Studies have shown that recurrent seizures may increase the concentration of reactive oxygen species, which can lead to oxidative stress and neuronal damage. These seizures result in substantial deleterious effects on an individual's health. Organic and conventional grape juices are rich in polyphenols, compounds with important antioxidant activity. However, these juices could have differences in their polyphenol content. The aim of this study was to investigate the neuroprotective and anticonvulsant effects of organic and conventional grape juice treatments in Wistar rats against pentylenetetrazole (a convulsant drug)-induced damage. In addition, we evaluated potential behavioral changes in rats treated with the juices and the polyphenolic profile of those samples. Animals (n=16 in each group) received treatment with saline, organic or conventional grape juice for 17days. On the eighteenth day, behavioral changes were evaluated by an open field test. Afterwards, half of the rats from each group received pentylenetetrazole and were observed for 30min to evaluate possible seizure characteristics. The animals were subsequently killed by decapitation and their hippocampus, cerebellum and cerebral cortex tissues were isolated. The results of this study showed that neither organic nor conventional grape juice altered the behavior parameters, and no statistical differences were observed in the seizure characteristics of the groups. Nevertheless, both juice types were able to protect from lipid and protein oxidative damage, decrease nitric oxide content and increase enzymatic (superoxide dismutase and catalase) and non-enzymatic (sulfhydryl protein) antioxidant defenses in brain tissues following pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures. In general, organic juice showed superior results in each test, probably due to its higher polyphenol content relative to conventional juice. These results indicate that grape juices can provide further insight into natural neuroprotective compounds and may lead to the development of new therapeutic strategies for epileptic patients.