Oridonin exerts anticancer effect on osteosarcoma by activating PPAR-γ and inhibiting Nrf2 pathway.
Cell Death Dis. 2018 01 11 ;9(1):15. Epub 2018 Jan 11. PMID: 29323103
Osteosarcoma is the most common high-grade human primary malignant bone sarcoma with lower survival in the past decades. Oridonin, a bioactive diterpenoid isolated from Rabdosia rubescens, has been proved to possess potent anti-cancer effects. However, its potential mechanism still remains not fully clear nowadays. In this study, we investigated the anticancer effect of oridonin on human osteosarcoma and illuminated the underlying mechanisms. In vitro, oridonin inhibited the cell viability of various osteosarcoma cells. We demonstrated that oridonin induced mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis by increasing Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), triggering reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and activating caspase-3 and caspase-9 cleavage in MG-63 and HOS cells. Moreover, we found that oridonin triggered ROS by inhibiting NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) pathway and induced mitochondrial apoptosis via inhibiting nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation by activating Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor γ (PPAR-γ) in MG-63 and HOS cells. We further confirmed the results by PPAR-γ inhibitor GW9662, PPAR-γ siRNA as well as overexpression of PPAR-γ and Nrf2 in vitro. Furthermore, our in vivo study showed that oridonin inhibited tumor growth with high safety via inducing apoptosis through activating PPAR-γ and inhibiting Nrf2 activation in xenograft model inoculated HOS tumor. Taken together, oridonin exerted a dramatic pro-apoptotic effect by activating PPAR-γ and inhibiting Nrf2 pathway in vitro and in vivo.Therefore, oridonin may be a promising and effective agent for human osteosarcoma in the future clinical applications.