Inhibitory Effects of Polyacetylene Compounds from Panax ginseng on Neurotrophin Receptor-Mediated Hair Growth.
Biol Pharm Bull. 2017 ;40(10):1784-1788. PMID: 28966252
Neurotrophins play an important role in the control of the hair growth cycle. Therefore, neurotrophin receptor antagonists have therapeutic potential for the treatment of hair growth disorders. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of Panax ginseng, a medicinal plant commonly used to treat alopecia, on the binding of neurotrophins to their receptors. In addition, we isolated and characterized the bioactive compounds of P. ginseng extracts. P. ginseng hexane extracts strongly inhibited brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-TrkB andβ-nerve growth factor (β-NGF)-p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR) binding. Furthermore, we identified the following 6 polyacetylene compounds as the bioactive components in P. ginseng hexane extract: panaxynol (1), panaxydol (2), panaxydol chlorohydrin (3), 1,8-heptadecadiene-4,6-diyne-3,10-diol (4), panaxytriol (5), and dihydropanaxacol (6). In particular, compounds 4, 5, and 6 significantly inhibited BDNF-TrkB binding in a dose-dependent manner. To identify the structural component mediating the inhibitory effect, we investigated the effects of the hydroxyl moiety in these compounds. We found that the inhibitory effect of panaxytriol (5) was strong, whereas the inhibitory effect of Ac-panaxytriol (7) was relatively weak. Our findings suggest that P. ginseng-derived polyacetylenes with a hydroxyl moiety might provide therapeutic benefits to patients with hair growth disorders such as alopecia by inhibiting the binding of neurotrophins to their receptors. Although saponins have been proposed to be the primary mediators of the effects of P. ginseng on hair growth, this study revealed that polyacetylene compounds exert similar effects.