Perchlorate and chlorate in dietary supplements and flavor enhancing ingredients.
Anal Chim Acta. 2006 May 10;567(1):26-32. Epub 2006 Mar 16. PMID: 17723375
Water Quality Research and Development Department, Southern Nevada Water Authority, 1350 Richard Bunker Ave., Henderson, NV 89015, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
The oxyhalide anions perchlorate and chlorate were measured in a series of dietary (vitamin and mineral) supplements and flavor enhancing ingredients collected from various commercial vendors in two large US cities. Analyses were conducted using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The limit of detection was based on the mass of supplements and ingredients extracted and ranged from 2 to 15 ng/g for perchlorate and 4 to 30 ng/g for chlorate. Perchlorate and chlorate were detected in 20 and 26, respectively, of the 31 dietary supplements tested, with concentrations ranging from non-detectable to as high as 2400 and 10,300 ng/g, respectively. Based upon the recommended dose provided by each manufacturer for different supplements, the daily oral dose of perchlorate and chlorate could be as high as 18 and 20 microg/day, respectively. The highest level of perchlorate was found in a supplement recommended for pregnant women as a prenatal nutritional supplement. Of the 31 dietary supplements investigated, 12 were specifically marketed for pregnant women and children. Perchlorate and chlorate were also detectable in four products marketed for the enhancement of food flavor. Perchlorate is found naturally in some parts of the world, is present in some natural fertilizers, is used as an oxidizer in solid fuel engines, and has been used at therapeutic doses in humans to treat overactive thyroid glands. Perchlorate has been detected in drinking water, dairy products, some produce and grains, and human breast milk. This is the first report of perchlorate measured in over-the-counter dietary supplements and flavor enhancing ingredients.