The role of the folic acid to the prevention of orofacial cleft: an epidemiological study.
Oral Dis. 2015 Mar ;21(2):240-7. Epub 2014 May 28. PMID: 24828118
R F Figueiredo
BACKGROUND: Orofacial clefts (OFCs) have complex and multifactorial etiologies. Periconceptional folic acid supplementation can significantly reduce the risk of OFC.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the role of folate and other factors in preventing OFC by analyzing the health and socio-demographic data collected from a population sample.
METHODS: Retrospective case-control study in which mothers with children with or without OFC were evaluated for the following main parameters: nutritional factors, socio-demographic characteristics, pregnancy and family history, use of folate, and counseling by healthcare professionals.
RESULTS: Socio-epidemiological analysis of the 80 participants, 40 in the case group and 40 in the control group, found a significant impact on the risk of OFC related to economic and educational status. The mothers who had a diet rich in vegetables and white meat had a lower risk of having children with OFC. A short interval between pregnancies, subsequent pregnancy while still breastfeeding, and family history also increased risk of OFC.
CONCLUSIONS: Limited family planning, diet low in folate, and inadequate use of folate during the periconceptional period and during the first trimester of pregnancy were demonstrated a potential correlation with a high incidence of OFC in this study.