Could the endocrine disruptor bisphenol-A be implicated in the pathogenesis of oral and oropharyngeal cancer? Metabolic considerations and future directions.
Metabolism. 2019 Feb ;91:61-69. Epub 2018 Nov 17. PMID: 30458176
Bisphenol-A (BPA), a prototype endocrine disrupting molecule, has been associated with many disease entities such as diabetes mellitus, obesity, polycystic ovarian disease, cardiovascular disease, reproductive and neurodevelopmental disorders. BPA has also been associated mainly with not only hormone sensitive cancers such as breast, prostate, endometrial, ovarian, testicular and thyroid cancers but also non-hormonal sensitive cancers such as cervical and lung cancers, osteosarcoma and meningioma. Recent research has investigated the sources of contamination which are responsible for higher BPA concentrations in the oral cavity and oropharyngeal space, representing the first site of BPA exposure after ingestion. Besides growing awareness and case registration, the incidence and prevalence of oral (OC) and oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) have increased during the last decades correlating with the increased production of BPA worldwide. So far, no study in the medical literature has explored the association of BPA with OC and OPC. BPA may be linked to the etiopathogenesis of OC and OPC through a multitude of mechanisms encompassing and interconnecting genetic, epigenetic, inflammatory, immune, metabolic, hormonal and oxidative stress alterations as well as modulation of oral microbiome. Hence, it is not possible to rule out a potential role of BPA exposure in oral and oropharyngeal tissue carcinogenesis, especially knowing its potential to participate in other non-hormonal sensitive malignancies and to deregulate signaling pathways implicated in OC and OPC. This perspective aims at outlining evidence and proposing for the first time a potential link between BPA with OC and OPC, the most frequent subtypes of head and neck malignancies.