Phenethyl Isothiocyanate Protects against High Fat/Cholesterol Diet-Induced Obesity and Atherosclerosis in C57BL/6 Mice.
Nutrients. 2020 Nov 27 ;12(12). Epub 2020 Nov 27. PMID: 33261070
This study concerns obesity-related atherosclerosis, hyperlipidemia, and chronic inflammation. We studied the anti-obesity and anti-atherosclerosis effects of phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) and explored their underlying mechanisms. We established an animal model of high fat/cholesterol-induced obesity in C57BL/6 mice fed for 13 weeks. We divided the mice into five groups: control (CON), high fat/cholesterol (HFCD), HFCD with 3 mg/kg/day gallic acid (HFCD + G), and HFCD with PEITC (30 and 75 mg/kg/day; HFCD + P30 and P75). The body weight, total cholesterol, and triglyceride were significantly lower in the HFCD + P75 group than in the HFCD group. Hepatic lipid accumulation and atherosclerotic plaque formation in the aorta were significantly lower in both HFCD + PEITC groups than in the HFCD group, as revealed by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining. To elucidate the mechanism, we identified the expression of genes related to inflammation, reverse cholesterol transport, and lipid accumulation pathway in the liver. The expression levels of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), liver-X-receptor α (LXR-α), and ATP binding cassette subfamily A member 1 (ABCA1) were increased, while those of scavenger receptor A (SR-A1), cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36), and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) were decreased in the HFCD + P75 group compared with those in the HFCD group. Moreover, PEITC modulated H3K9 and H3K27 acetylation, H3K4 dimethylation, and H3K27 di-/trimethylation in the HFCD + P75 group. We, therefore, suggest that supplementation with PEITC may be a potential candidate for the treatment and prevention of atherosclerosis and obesity.