Phyllanthus emblica Linn. fruit extract potentiates the anticancer efficacy of mitomycin C and cisplatin and reduces their genotoxicity to normal cells in vitro.
J Zhejiang Univ Sci B. 2017 Dec.;18(12):1031-1045. PMID: 29204983
OBJECTIVE: Fruit of Phyllanthus emblica Linn. (PE) is widely consumed as a functional food and used as a folk medicine due to its remarkable nutritional and pharmacological effects. Mitomycin C (MMC) and cisplatin (cDDP) are the most widely used forms of chemotherapeutic drug, but their clinical use is limited by their genotoxicity to normal cells. We aimed to determine whether PE has potential to reduce the genotoxicity, while improving the anticancer effect, of MMC and cDDP.
METHODS: Cell proliferation was evaluated using the trypan blue exclusion assay and colony-forming assay. Genomic instability (GIN) was measured using the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay.
RESULTS: Co-treatment (72 h) with PE at 20-320μg/ml significantly enhanced the efficacy of MMC (0.05 μg/ml) and cDDP (1 μg/ml) against Colo205 colorectal cancer cells (P<0.05), and at 80-320μg/ml significantly decreased MMC- and cDDP-induced GIN and multinucleation in normal colonic NCM460 cells (P<0.05). PE significantly decreased the mitotic index (P<0.01), blocked mitotic progression (P<0.05), and promoted apoptosis (P<0.01) in MMC- and cDDP-treated NCM460 cells, suggesting that PE-mediated inhibition of mitosis and induction of apoptosis may limit the division and survival of highly damaged cells. Also, PE was found to inhibit the clonal expansion of MMC- and cDDP-treated NCM460 cells (P<0.05) and decrease the heterogeneity of the surviving clones.
CONCLUSIONS: PE potentiates the anticancer efficacy of MMC and cDDP, while preventing their genotoxicity and inhibiting clonal expansions of unstable genomes in normal cells. These data suggest that PE has the potential to reduce the risk of secondary cancers induced by chemotherapeutics.