Pinus densiflora needle supercritical fluid extract suppresses the expression of pro-inflammatory mediators
Daru. 2017 Aug 4 ;25(1):18. Epub 2017 Aug 4. PMID: 28778215
BACKGROUND: Regulation of a persistently-activated inflammatory response in macrophages is an important target for treatment of various chronic diseases. Pine needle extracts are well known to have potent immunomodulatory effects. The current study was designed to evaluate the effects of Pinus densiflora needle supercritical fluid extract (PDN-SCFE) on bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory response in RAW 264.7 murine macrophages.
METHODS: Cytotoxic effect of PDN-SCFE was determined by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The levels of nitric oxide (NO) and the corresponding enzyme, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), were quantified by Griess and immunoblotting methods, respectively. The levels of cytokines were quantified using commercial ELISA kits. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis was performed to assess the mRNA expression of iNOS and cytokines. To elucidate the mechanism of action, the involvement of nuclear transcription factor-kappa B (NFκB), mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and Janus kinase-signal transducers and activators of transcription (JAK-STAT) pathways were examined by an immunoblotting method. In addition, the cellular localization of NFκB was analyzed by immunofluorescence staining.
RESULTS: MTT assay results indicated that PDN-SCFE is non-toxic to RAW 264.7 cells up to a maximum assayed concentration of 40 μg/mL. The PDN-SCFE exhibited a concentration-dependent inhibitory effect on LPS-induced NO production by down regulating the expression of iNOS. In addition, the extract suppressed the LPS-induced expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) but not tumour necrosis factor-α (TNFα). Mechanistic studies revealed that PDN-SCFE does not influence the NFκB and MAPK pathways. However, it showed a significant inhibitory effect on LPS-induced activation of STAT1 and STAT3 proteins in macrophages.
CONCLUSION: The present findings revealed that the anti-inflammatory activity of PDN-SCFE in LPS-challenged RAW 264.7 macrophages is probably caused by the suppression of the JAK-STAT signaling pathway.