Inhibition of ERKs/Akt-Mediated c-Fos Expression Is Required for Piperlongumine-Induced Cyclin D1 Downregulation and Tumor Suppression in Colorectal Cancer Cells.
Onco Targets Ther. 2020 ;13:5591-5603. Epub 2020 Jun 15. PMID: 32606774
Background: Deregulation of Cyclin D1 and cell cycle progression plays a critical role in tumorigenesis. The natural compound piperlongumine (PL) exhibits potential anticancer effects in various cancer models, but the underlying mechanism needs further elucidation.
Methods: The inhibitory effect of PL on colorectal cancer (CRC) cells was determined by anchorage-dependent and -independent assays. The protein level of Cyclin D1 was examined by immunoblot (IB) and immunohistochemical staining (IHC). The mRNA level was determined by qRT-PCR. Phosphorylation of histone H3 was analyzed by immunofluorescence (IF). The cell cycle was examined by flow cytometry. The in vivo antitumor effect was validated by the xenograft mouse model.
Results: Cyclin D1 was overexpressed in CRC tissues and cells, and was required for maintaining cell growth, colony formation, and in vivo tumorigenesis. PL decreased the protein level of c-Fos, which eventually reduced the transcriptional activity of AP-1 and the mRNA level of Cyclin D1. Mechanism study showed that PL impaired EGF-induced activation of ERK1/2 and Akt signalings, which resulted in a reduction of c-Fos transcription. Furthermore, PL reduced the half-life of c-Fos and caused the ubiquitination-dependent degradation of c-Fos. Finally, the in vivo antitumor effect of PL on CRC cells was examined using a xenograft mouse model.
Conclusion: Our data indicate that PL is a promising antitumor agent that deserves further study for CRC treatment.