Polyphenols Extracted fromL. Exhibit Anti-Cancer Effects on Radio-Resistant MDA-MB-231 Human Breast Cancer Cells by Suppressing Stem Cell Phenotype,β-Catenin, and MMP-9.
Molecules. 2020 Apr 21 ;25(8). Epub 2020 Apr 21. PMID: 32326231
Young Shin Ko
L. has been reported to show anti-cancer activities. Here, we determined whether polyphenols extracted fromL. (pKAL) exhibit anti-cancer effects on radio-resistant MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells (RT-R-MDA-MB-231 cells), and further explored their molecular mechanisms. Cell viability assay and colony-forming assay revealed that pKAL inhibited cell proliferation on both parental and RT-R-MDA-MB-231 cells in a dose-dependent manner. The anti-proliferative effects of pKAL on RT-R-MDA-MB-231 cells were superior or similar to those on parental ones. Western blot analysis revealed that expressions of cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44) and Oct 3/4, matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT-3) phosphorylation were significantly increased in RT-R-MDA-MB-231 cells compared to parental ones, suggesting that these proteins could be associated with RT resistance. pKAL inhibited the expression of CD44 and Oct 3/4 (CSC markers), andβ-catenin and MMP-9 as well as STAT-3 phosphorylation of RT-R-MDA-MB-231. Regarding upstream signaling, the JNK or JAK2 inhibitor could inhibit STAT-3 activation in RT-R-MDA-MB-231 cells, but not augmented pKAL-induced anti-cancer effects. These findings suggest that c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) or Janus kinase 2 (JAK2)/STAT3 signaling are not closely related to the anti-cancer effects of pKAL. In conclusion, this study suggests that pKAL exhibit anti-cancer effects on RT-R-MDA-MB-231 cells by suppressing CD44 and Oct 3/4, β-catenin and MMP-9, which appeared to be linked to RT resistance ofRT-R-MDA-MB-231 cells.