Soy isoflavones modulate azoxymethane-induced rat colon carcinogenesis exposed pre- and postnatally and inhibit growth of DLD-1 human colon adenocarcinoma cells by increasing the expression of estrogen receptor-beta.
J Nutr. 2009 Mar;139(3):474-81. Epub 2009 Jan 13. PMID: 19141699
We studied the effects of lifetime exposure to dietary soy isoflavones in an azoxymethane (AOM)-induced rat colon cancer model. Male pups born to Sprague-Dawley rats exposed (including during pregnancy and lactation) to soy isoflavones at either no (0 mg = control), low (40 mg), or high (1000 mg) doses/kg diet were weaned and continued receiving their respective parental diets until the end of the study. Weaned rats received 2 subcutaneous injections (15 mg/kg body weight) of AOM 1 wk apart. After 26 wk, rats were killed and the coordinates of colon aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and tumors were determined. Expression of estrogen receptor (ER)-beta was assessed in rat colon tumors and in DLD-1 human colon adenocarcinoma cells exposed to soy isoflavones. Compared with the control, soy isoflavones did not affect incidences or multiplicities of colon ACF or tumors. Low-dose soy isoflavones decreased tumor burden and size compared with the control (P<0.05). Expression of ERbeta increased in colon tumors of soy isoflavone-treated groups compared with the control. Soy isoflavones dose-dependently arrested the growth of DLD-1 cells and at subcytotoxic levels increased the expression of ERbeta. Our results suggest that pre- and postnatal exposure to dietary soy isoflavones suppresses the growth of colon tumors in male rats. The overexpression of ERbeta in both rat colon tumors and DLD-1 cells caused by soy isoflavones suggests that ERbeta is a critical mediator in mitigating its cancer-preventive effects.