Clopidogrel and bleeding after coronary artery bypass graft surgery.
Ann Thorac Surg. 2005 Sep;80(3):928-33. PMID: 16122457
Flinders Medical Centre and Flinders University, Adelaide, Australia.
BACKGROUND: There is evidence that clopidogrel (with or without aspirin) confers superior outcomes in patients with coronary artery disease. The purpose of this study is to review the effect of preoperative clopidogrel administration on clinical outcome, bleeding complications and resource utilization after coronary artery bypass graft surgery. METHODS: Patient data were prospectively collected from 919 patients who had isolated coronary surgery during the period 2000 to 2003. Outcome comparisons were studied, firstly between patients who received preoperative clopidogrel with those who did not, and secondly between patients on clopidogrel only, aspirin only, both or neither medications. RESULTS: Twenty-four patients (2.6%) were on clopidogrel only, 598 (65.1%) were on aspirin only, 61 (6.6%) were on both, and 236 (25.7%) were on neither. Clopidogrel (n = 85) versus no clopidogrel (n = 834): there were no significant differences in the off-pump patients. In the on-pump patients, the clopidogrel group had significantly increased bleeding (p = 0.02), blood transfused (p = 0.01), intensive care (p = 0.03), and hospital stays (p = 0.03). There were no significant differences in surgical reexploration, perioperative myocardial infarction, intraoperative balloon pump use, inotropic support or 30-day mortality. Clopidogrel versus aspirin versus both versus neither: patients on both clopidogrel and aspirin had significantly more postoperative bleeding than patients on aspirin alone or on neither medication. CONCLUSIONS: The preoperative use of clopidogrel in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery showed limited clinical benefits; however, its use significantly increased the risk of bleeding, blood transfusion, and resource utilization.