Preparation of Lipid-Soluble Bilberry Anthocyanins through Acylation with Cinnamic Acids and their Antioxidation Activities.
J Agric Food Chem. 2020 Jul 15 ;68(28):7467-7473. Epub 2020 Jun 30. PMID: 32551628
To enable the use of anthocyanins in food with high oil content, bilberry anthocyanins were acylated with cinnamic acids to address their poor lipid solubility. Structural analyses based on Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), andH nuclear magnetic resonance analyses indicated that cinnamic acids were efficiently grafted onto 6-OH of glucoside and galactoside and 5-OH of arabinose through an esterification reaction. The higher the dose of the acylating agent, the higher the acylation degree (AD) and the lower the total anthocyanidin content (TAC) of bilberry anthocyanins. An-Ci4 presented the highest AD value (6.61%), and An-Ci3 exhibited the lowest TAC value (50.16 mg/g). After acylating with lipophilic cinnamic acids, the lipid solubility of acylated bilberry anthocyanins significantly improved. The color of the native bilberry anthocyanin solution dissolved in ethyl acetate and dioxane was transparent. By contrast, the acylated anthocyanin solution dissolved in these solvents was unmistakably red. In terms of the antioxidant activity, acylated bilberry anthocyanins demonstrated inferior performance in 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) clearance but a better inhibition ratio inβ-carotene bleaching assay compared with native bilberry anthocyanins. As AD value increased, the DPPH clearance of acylated anthocyanins decreased and their inhibition ratio increased in β-carotene bleaching assay.