Procyanidin-B2 enriched fraction of cinnamon acts as a proteasome inhibitor and anti-proliferative agent in human prostate cancer cells.
IUBMB Life. 2018 May ;70(5):445-457. Epub 2018 Mar 14. PMID: 29537730
Altered activity of the proteolytic machine-the 26S proteasome is observed in many disease conditions. Hence, either inhibition or activation of the 26S proteasome is thought to be a novel therapy for treatment of certain diseases such as cancer and neurodegenerative disorders. In this study, we tested the potential of cinnamon and one of its active ingredients, procyanidin-B2 (PCB2), in inhibiting the catalytic activities of the proteasome and suppressing prostate cancer cell growth. Proteasome activities were measured using fluorogenic substrates specific for the different enzymatic activities of the 26S proteasome by flourometry. Cell viability was assessed using the 3-[4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2.5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide assay, while apoptosis was examined by Hoechst and propidium iodide staining and caspase-3 activity. Both, the cinnamon extract and its PCB2-enriched F2 fraction inhibited the catalytic activities of the purified proteasome and the proteasome in cancer cells but not in normal cells. Furthermore, cinnamon and its active component decreased cell proliferation of human prostate cancer cells but not normal lung cells, decreased expression of anti-apoptotic and angiogenic markers in prostate cancer cell lysates. These results demonstrate that cinnamon extract and its PCB2-enriched fraction act as proteasome inhibitors and have prospects as anti-cancer agents.© 2018 IUBMB Life, 70(5):445-457, 2018.