Protective effect of vanillin on diabetic nephropathy by decreasing advanced glycation end products in rats.
Life Sci. 2019 Dec 15 ;239:117088. Epub 2019 Nov 21. PMID: 31759039
Imad Eddin M Zabad
AIMS: Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a common chronic microvascular complication of both types of diabetes mellitus, which leads to renal dysfunction and subsequent need of dialysis and organ transplantation. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are metabolic consequence of hyperglycemia and are main contributory factor in the DN pathogenesis through mediating establishment of oxidative status and chronic inflammatory milieu. This study aimed to explore the impact of vanillin on preventing the progression of DN.
MAIN METHODS: Experimental DN model was established in rats utilizing streptozotocin. Serum concentration of AGEs and Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and transforming growth factorβ1 (TGFβ1) levels in kidney homogenate were assessed using ELISA technique. Also, we evaluated the expression of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) using immunohistochemistry.
KEY FINDINGS: Treatment with vanillin for 8 weeks significantly ameliorated DN. Vanillin significantly decreased hyperglycemia and improved kidney function reflected by decreased serum levels of blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, and decreased proteinuria. Also, vanillin significantly decreased malondialdehyde content and elevated superoxidedismutase activity in renal tissues. Moreover, vanillin decreased renal expression of NF-κB and renal concentrations of IL-6, TGFβ1 and collagen. In addition, vanillin significantly decreased serum AGEs concentration. Also, vanillin attenuated histological abnormalities in kidney architecture.
SIGNIFICANCE: Vanillin, which is a cheap and abundant natural product, exhibited anti-AGEs, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic activities. These activities might be helpful and potent mechanisms in preventing the progression of DN.