Protective Effects of Astaxanthin on Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammation in Bovine Endometrial Epithelial Cells.
Biol Reprod. 2019 Sep 30. Epub 2019 Sep 30. PMID: 31566218
Astaxanthin (AST), a natural antioxidant carotenoid, has been shown to exert anti-inflammatory effects. However, to our knowledge, no study has specifically addressed the potential protective effects of AST against bovine endometritis. The purpose of this study was to examine whether treatment with AST could protect endometrial epithelial cells against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory injury. Treatment of bovine endometrial epithelial cell line (BEND) with AST reduced LPS-induced production of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), increased the cellular activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), decreased the proportion of apoptotic cells, and promoted the production of insulin-like growth factor (IGF) and epithelial growth factor (EGF). The effects of AST were mediated through the downregulation of Bcl-2associated X, apoptosis regulator (Bax), and cleaved caspase-3 and through the upregulation of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2). Moreover, AST significantly increased the expression of the tight junction proteins claudin, cadherin-1 (CDH1), and tight junction protein 1 (TJP1), which play an essential rolein the maintenance of host endometrial defense barrier against pathogen infection. Collectively, these results demonstrated that treatment with AST protected against oxidative stress, prevented cell apoptosis, promoted BEND cells viability, and increased the production of growth factors, in addition to activating the endometrial defense barrier. Therefore, AST is a promising therapeutic agent for the prevention and treatment of endometritis. This finding is of utmost importance in the present times when the excessive use of antibiotics has resulted in the development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria.