The protective effects ofβ-caryophyllene on LPS-induced primary microglia M/Mimbalance: A mechanistic evaluation.
Life Sci. 2019 Feb 15 ;219:40-73. Epub 2019 Jan 5. PMID: 30620895
Vahid Reza Askari
AIMS: Neuroinflammation is observed as a routine characterization of neurodegenerative disorders such as dementia, multiple sclerosis (MS) and Alzheimer's diseases (AD). Scientific evidence propounds both of the neuromodulatory and immunomodulatory effects of CBin the immune system.β-Caryophyllene (BCP) is a dietary selective CBagonist, which deserves the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects at both low and high doses through activation of the CBreceptor.
METHODS: In this study, we investigated the protective effects of a broad range concentration of BCP against LPS-induced primary microglia cells inflammation and M/Mimbalance and identifying the portion of the involvement of related signaling pathways on BCP effects using pharmacological antagonists of CB, PPAR-γ, and sphingomyelinase (SMase).
KEY FINDINGS: The protective effects of BCP on LPS-induced microglia imbalance is provided by the Mhealing phenotype of microglia, releasing the anti-inflammatory (IL-10, Arg-1, and urea) and anti-oxidant (GSH) parameters and reducing the inflammatory (IL-1β, TNF-α, PGE, iNOS and NO) and oxidative (ROS) biomarkers. Moreover, we showed that BCP exerts its effects through CBreceptors which overproduction of ceramides by SMase at middle to higher concentrations of BCP reduce the protective activity of BCP and results in the activation of the PPAR-γ pathway.
SIGNIFICANCE: In conclusion, the low concentration of BCP has higher selective anti-inflammatory effects rather than high levels. On this occasion, BCP by modulating the microglia is able to have potential therapeutic effects in neuro-inflammation conditions and microglia cells such as MS and AD.