Puerarin Attenuates Complete Freund's Adjuvant-Induced Trigeminal Neuralgia and Inflammation in a Mouse Model via Sirt1-Mediated TGF-β1/Smad3 Inhibition.
J Pain Res. 2021 ;14:2469-2479. Epub 2021 Aug 14. PMID: 34421312
Background: Puerarin, an active compound of radix puerariae, is a major compound used in Chinese herbal medicines and it has been well known for its pharmacological effects, including antioxidant, anti‑inflammatory, neuroprotective and cardioprotective properties. The aim of the present study was to determine the role of puerarin (Pue) in complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced trigeminal neuralgia (TN) and the effects of this compound on Sirt1 activity and on the progression of CFA-induced TN.
Methods: Mice were injected with CFA on the unilateral face to induce TN. A cell model of inflammation-associated TN was established by interleukin-1β (IL-1β; 10 ng/mL) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α; 50 ng/mL) stimulation of neurons. Reverse transcription-quantitative PCR and Western blot analyses were performed to analyze mRNA and protein expression levels in trigeminal ganglion and nerve cells. Terminal-deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining was used to determine nerve cell apoptosis following IL-1β/TNF-α or Pue treatment.
Results: Pue is a conceivable Sirtuin1 (Sirt1) activator used for the prevention of trigeminal nerve injury that attenuates CFA-induced TN and inflammatory cytokine-evoked overactivation of neuronal inflammation and apoptosis. Treatment of mice with inflammatory cytokines induced upregulation of cleaved caspase-3 protein expression, which was neutralized by Pue supplementation. Both in vivo and in vitro experiments led to the conclusion that Pue modulated Sirt1 activation and repressed transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) protein expression and drosophila mothers against decapentaplegic homolog3 (Smad3) phosphorylation in order to exert neuroprotection.
Conclusion: The findings suggested that Pue functioned as a potential Sirt1 activator to improve neuroinflammation-induced TN and neuronal apoptosis via the suppression of TGF-β1/Smad3 activity. The pharmacological activity of Pue provides a new perspective for the effective prevention and treatment of TN.