Quercetin Reduces Ischemic Brain Injury by Preventing Ischemia-induced Decreases in the Neuronal Calcium Sensor Protein Hippocalcin.
Neuroscience. 2020 Jan 23 ;430:47-62. Epub 2020 Jan 23. PMID: 31982469
Calcium acts as a second messenger that mediates physiologic functions, such as metabolism, cell proliferation, and apoptosis. Hippocalcin is a neuronal calcium sensor protein that regulates intracellular calcium concentration. Moreover, it prevents neuronal cell death from oxidative stress. Quercetin has excellent antioxidant properties and preventative effects. We studied modulation of hippocalcin expression by quercetin treatment in cerebral ischemic injury and glutamate-induced neuronal cell damage. Focal cerebral ischemia was induced by permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO). Male Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with vehicle or quercetin (10 mg/kg) 1 h prior to pMCAO, and cerebral cortical tissues were isolated 24 h after pMCAO. Quercetin improved pMCAO-induced neuronal movement deficit and infarction. pMCAO induced a decrease in hippocalcin expression in the cerebral cortex. However, quercetin treatment attenuated this pMCAO-induced decrease. In cultured hippocampal cells, glutamate excitotoxicity dramatically increased the intracellular calcium concentration, whereas quercetin alleviated intracellular calcium overload. Moreover, Western blot and immunocytochemical studies showed reduction of hippocalcin expression in glutamate-exposed cells. Quercetin prevented this glutamate-induced decrease. Furthermore, caspase-3 expression in hippocalcin siRNA transfection conditions is higher than caspase-3 expression in un-transfection conditions. Quercetin treatment attenuated the increase of caspase-3. Taken together, theseresults suggest that quercetin exerts a preventative effect through attenuation of intracellular calcium overload and restoration of down-regulated hippocalcin expression during ischemic injury.