Red beetroot extract abrogates chlorpyrifos-induced cortical damage. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Red Beetroot Extract Abrogates Chlorpyrifos-Induced Cortical Damage in Rats.
Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2020 ;2020:2963020. Epub 2020 Mar 9. PMID: 32215171
Organophosphorus insecticides including chlorpyrifos (CPF) are mainly used for agriculture, household, and military purposes; their application is associated with various adverse reactions in animals and humans. This study was conducted to evaluate the potential neuroprotective effect of red beetroot methanolic extract (RBR) against CPF-induced cortical damage. Twenty-eight adult male Wistar albino rats were divided into 4 groups (= 7 in each group): the control group was administered physiological saline (0.9% NaCl), the CPF group was administered CPF (10 mg/kg), the RBR group was administered RBR (300 mg/kg), and the RBR+CPF group was treated with RBR (300 mg/kg) 1 hr before CPF (10 mg/kg) supplementation. All groups were treated for 28 days. Rats exposed to CPF exhibited a significant decrease in cortical acetylcholinesterase activity and brain-derived neurotrophic factor and a decrease in glial fibrillary acidic protein. CPF intoxication increased lipid peroxidation, inducible nitric oxide synthase expression, and nitric oxide production. This was accompanied by a decrease in glutathione content and in the activities of glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase in the cortical tissue. Additionally, CPF enhanced inflammatory response, indicated by increased levels and expression of interleukin-1and tumor necrosis factor-. CPF triggered neuronal apoptosis by upregulating Bax and caspase-3 and downregulating Bcl-2. However, RBR reversed the induced neuronal alterations following CPF intoxication. Our findings suggest that RBR can minimize and prevent CPF neurotoxicity through its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiapoptotic activities.