Protective Effects of Carvacrol on Brain Tissue Inflammation and Oxidative Stress as well as Learning and Memory in Lipopolysaccharide-Challenged Rats.
Neurotox Res. 2020 Apr ;37(4):965-976. Epub 2019 Dec 6. PMID: 31811590
Inflammation can cause memory impairment. In the present study, the effect of carvacrol on brain tissue inflammation and oxidative stress as well as learning and memory in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-challenged rats was evaluated. The animals were grouped and treated: (1) control which received vehicle instead of LPS and carvacrol, (2) LPS (1 mg/kg; i.p. 120 min before behavioral tests), and (3-5) in these groups, 25, 50, or 100 mg/kg of carvacrol (i.p.) was administered 30 min prior to LPS. In a Morris water maze test, compared to LPS group, administration of all three doses of carvacrol shortened the elapsed time and the traveleddistance to find the platform, while it prolonged the traveled time in the target area. In a passive avoidance test, administration of all 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg carvacrol significantly increased the latency at the 3 h, 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h after the shock compared to the LPS group. Interleukin(IL)-6, malondialdehyde (MDA), and NO (nitric oxide) metabolites were increased in the brain by LPS injection, while thiol, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) were decreased. Pretreatment with carvacrol reduced IL-6, NO metabolites, and MDA, while it improved thiol content, CAT, and SOD.The results indicated that carvacrol protected from learning and memory impairment and the brain tissue inflammation and oxidative stress in LPS-challenged rats.