Soft drink consumption and risk of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: results from the Tianjin Chronic Low-Grade Systemic Inflammation and Health (TCLSIH) cohort study.
Am J Clin Nutr. 2021 Feb 10. Epub 2021 Feb 10. PMID: 33564868
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological evidence for the association of soft drink consumption with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is inconsistent, and such association has not been prospectively examined in the general adult population.
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate the prospective association between soft drink consumption and the risk of NAFLD in a Chinese adult population.
METHODS: This prospective cohort study investigated 14,845 participants [mean age: 39.3 y; 6203 (41.8%) men] who were free of liver disease, cardiovascular disease, and cancer at baseline. Soft drink consumption (mainly sugar-containing carbonated beverages) was measured at baseline using a validated FFQ. NAFLD was diagnosed based on abdominal ultrasound without significant alcohol consumption and other causes of liver disease. Hepatic steatosis index (HSI) was calculated based on sex, BMI, and blood transaminase levels. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to examine the association of soft drink consumption with incident NAFLD.
RESULTS: A total of 2888 first-incident cases of NAFLD occurred during 42,048 person-years of follow-up (median follow-up: 4.2 y). After adjusting for demographic characteristics, lifestyle factors, dietary intake, and inflammatory markers, the multivariable HRs (95% CIs) for incident NAFLD were 1.00 (reference) for<1 serving/wk, 1.18 (1.03, 1.34) for 1 serving/wk, 1.23 (1.08, 1.40) for 2-3 servings/wk, and 1.47 (1.25, 1.73) for≥4 servings/wk, respectively (P for trend < 0.0001). Further sensitivity analysis showed that the corresponding multivariable HRs (95% CIs) for incident HSI-defined NAFLD were 1.00 (reference), 0.96 (0.70, 1.31), 1.16 (0.83, 1.62), and 1.59 (1.07, 2.37), respectively (P for trend < 0.0001).
CONCLUSIONS: The results from our prospective study indicate that soft drink consumption is associated with an increased risk of NAFLD in Chinese adults. This study was registered at UMIN Clinical Trials Registry as UMIN000027174.