Resveratrol may protect against gluatmate associated neurotoxicity. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Resveratrol reduces glutamate-mediated monocyte chemotactic protein-1 expression via inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 pathway in rat hippocampal slice cultures.
J Neurochem. 2010 Mar;112(6):1477-87. Epub 2009 Dec 28. PMID: 20050970
Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Ewha Medical Research Institute, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, Korea.
Published evidence has linked glutamate with the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and the up-regulation of a variety of chemokines, including monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1)/chemokine ligand 2, with AD-associated pathological changes. In this study, we assessed the potential molecular basis for the role of glutamate in hippocampal inflammation by determining its effects on MCP-1 induction. We also attempted to identify the mechanism by which resveratrol (trans-3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene), a polyphenolic phytostilbene, modulates the expression of MCP-1 in the glutamate-stimulated hippocampus. An ex vivo study using rat hippocampal slices demonstrated a time- and dose-dependent increase in MCP-1 release from glutamate-exposed hippocampus. This increase was accompanied by enhanced MCP-1 gene expression via the activation of the MEK/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway and interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) expression. The inhibition of the MEK/ERK pathway with SL327, which is capable of crossing the blood-brain barrier, nearly abolished the observed glutamate-induced effects. Furthermore, anti-IL-1beta antibodies suppressed the glutamate-induced expression of MCP-1 mRNA and protein, whereas an isotype-matched antibody exerted only minimal effects. It is worthy of note that resveratrol, to a similar degree as SL327, down-regulated glutamate-induced IL-1beta expression and reduced the expression of MCP-1 mRNA and protein release via the inactivation of ERK1/2. These results indicate that the activation of the MEK/ERK pathway and the consequent IL-1beta expression are essential for glutamate-stimulated MCP-1 production in the hippocampus. Additionally, our data reveal an anti-inflammatory mechanism of resveratrol involving the inactivation of the ERK1/2 pathway in the hippocampus, which is linked principally to AD-associated cognitive dysfunction.