Do Advanced Glycation End Products (AGEs) Contribute to the Comorbidities of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)?
Curr Pharm Des. 2016 Jul 13. Epub 2016 Jul 13. PMID: 27412301
Aleksandra Zofia Rutkowska
Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are formed both during the endogenous and exogenous reactions and are implicated in the process of ageing, pathogenesis of diabetes, atherosclerosis, female fertility, and cancers. Food and smoking are the most important sources of exogenous AGEs in daily life. The biochemical composition of meal, cooking methods, time and temperature of food preparation may impact AGEs formation, therefore Western-type diet, rich in animal-derived products as well as in fast foods seems to be the main source of AGEs. Both, endogenous and exogenous AGEs can act intracellularly or during serum interaction with cell surface receptors called RAGE influencing variety of molecular pathways. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrinopathy in women of reproductive age. The aetiology of this disorder remains unclear, however the environmental and genetic factors may play an important role in its pathogenesis. Nevertheless, PCOS women have increased factors for reproductive and cardiometabolic comorbidities. AGEs can contribute to the pathogenesis of PCOS as well as its consequences. It has been shown that chronic inflammation and increased oxidative stress may be a link between the mechanisms of AGEs action and the metabolic and reproductive consequences of PCOS. This review highlights that high dietary AGEs intake promotes deteriorating biological effects in women with PCOS, whereas AGEs restriction seems to have beneficial impact on women health. Better understanding AGEs formation and biochemistry as well as AGE-mediated pathophysiological mechanisms may open new therapeutic avenues converging to the achievement of the complete treatment of PCOS and its consequences.