Article Publish Status: FREE
Abstract Title:

4-Hydroxyisoleucine from Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum): Effects on Insulin Resistance Associated with Obesity.

Abstract Source:

Molecules. 2016 Nov 22 ;21(11). Epub 2016 Nov 22. PMID: 27879673

Abstract Author(s):

Anaguiven Avalos-Soriano, Ricardo De la Cruz-Cordero, Jorge L Rosado, Teresa Garcia-Gasca

Article Affiliation:

Anaguiven Avalos-Soriano


Obesity and insulin resistance (IR) are interdependent multifactorial processes that cannot be understood separately. Obesity leads to systemic inflammation and increased levels of free fatty acids that provoke IR and lipotoxicity. At the same time, IR exacerbates adipose cell dysfunction, resulting in chronic inflammation and major lipotoxic effects on nonadipose tissues. 4-Hydroxyisoleucine (4-OHIle), a peculiar nonprotein amino acid isolated from fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) seeds, exhibits interesting effects on IR related to obesity. 4-OHIle increases glucose-induced insulin release, and the insulin response mediated by 4-OHIle depends on glucose concentration. The beneficial effects observed are related to the regulation of blood glucose, plasma triglycerides, total cholesterol, free fatty acid levels, and the improvement of liver function. The mechanism of action is related to increased Akt phosphorylation and reduced activation of Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)1/2, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and nuclear factor (NF)-κB. Here, we present a review of the research regarding the insulinotropic and insulin-sensitising activity of 4-OHIle in in vitro and in vivo models.

Study Type : Viral

Print Options

Key Research Topics

Sayer Ji
Founder of GreenMedInfo.com

Subscribe to our informative Newsletter & get Nature's Evidence-Based Pharmacy

Our newsletter serves 500,000 with essential news, research & healthy tips, daily.

Download Now

500+ pages of Natural Medicine Alternatives and Information.

This website is for information purposes only. By providing the information contained herein we are not diagnosing, treating, curing, mitigating, or preventing any type of disease or medical condition. Before beginning any type of natural, integrative or conventional treatment regimen, it is advisable to seek the advice of a licensed healthcare professional.

© Copyright 2008-2022 GreenMedInfo.com, Journal Articles copyright of original owners, MeSH copyright NLM.