Rutin restores neurobehavioral deficits via alterations in cadmium bioavailability in the brain of rats exposed to cadmium.
Neurotoxicology. 2019 Dec 10 ;77:12-19. Epub 2019 Dec 10. PMID: 31836556
Many plant foods are rich sources of rutin, a flavonoid with many biological activities and health benefits. Exposure to cadmium has been implicated in neurotoxicity and cognitive dysfunction in animal models. However, there is a dearth of information on the effect of rutin on the cadmium bioavailability in the brain of rats exposed to cadmium. Thus, the present study investigated the therapeutic efficacy of rutin in an animal model of cognitive impairment via alterations of cadmium bioavailability in cadmium-exposed rats. Animals were divided into six groups (n = 6): group 1 served as control, groups 2 and 3 are normal rats received 25 and 50 mg/kg of rutin respectively, group 4 received cadmium (5 mg/kg), while groups 5 and 6 are cadmium-exposed rats treated with 25 and 50 mg/kg rutin respectively via oral administration for 21 days. Rutin was administered 30 min after cadmium administration each day. The spatial working memory of the exposed and treated rats was assessed using Morris water maze and Y-Maze tasks. Furthermore, the residual level of cadmium ion in the brain of the rats was estimated. The cholinesterase (AChE and BChE) activities and nitric oxide level were determined. Besides, the level of oxidative stress markers (ROS and MDA) was assessed. Results revealed that rutin significantly reduced cadmium bioavailability in the brain of cadmium-exposed rats. Moreso, cadmium increased cholinesterase (AChE and BChE) activities and level of oxidative stress markers in the brain, with a concomitant decrease in nitric oxide level. However, treatment with rutin decreased cholinesterase activities and the level of oxidative stress markers in cadmium-exposed rats. Also, rutin improved spatial working memory and learning processes as revealed by Morris water maze and Y-Maze tasks. Conclusively, rutin could be considered to possess cognitive-enhancing properties possibly through alterations of cadmium bioavailability in the brain of cadmium-exposed rats.