Safflower flavonoid extract showed a significant anti-Parkinson's disease effect. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Neuroprotective Effects of Safflower Flavonoid Extract in 6-Hydroxydopamine-Induced Model of Parkinson's Disease May Be Related to its Anti-Inflammatory Action.
Molecules. 2020 Nov 9 ;25(21). Epub 2020 Nov 9. PMID: 33182332
Safflower (), a Chinese materia medica, is widely used for the treatment of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, with flavonoids being the major active components. Multiple flavonoids in safflower bind to Parkinson's disease (PD)-related protein DJ-1. Safflower flavonoid extract (SAFE) improved behavioral indicators in a 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced rat model of PD; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We used a 6-OHDA-induced mouse model of PD and a primary neuron-astrocyte coculture system to determine the neuroprotective effects and mechanisms of SAFE. After three weeks of SAFE administration, behavioral indicators of PD mice were improved. SAFE regulated the levels of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and dopamine metabolism. It significantly inhibited the activation of astrocytes surrounding the substantia nigra and reduced Iba-1 protein level in the striatum of PD mice. SAFE reduced the plasma content of inflammatory factors and suppressed the activation of nod-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome. In the coculture system, kaempferol 3-O-rutinoside and anhydrosafflor yellow B significantly improved neuronal survival, suppressed neuronal apoptosis, and reduced IL-1β and IL-10 levels in the medium. Thus, SAFE showed a significant anti-PD effect, which is mainly associated with flavonoid anti-inflammatory activities.