Immunomodulatory properties of frondoside A, a major triterpene glycoside from the North Atlantic commercially harvested sea cucumber Cucumaria frondosa.
J Med Food. 2008 Sep;11(3):443-53. PMID: 18800890
Frondoside A, a major triterpene glycoside from North Atlantic commercially harvested sea cucumber Cucumaria frondosa, possesses strong immunomodulatory properties in subtoxic doses. Frondoside A stimulates lysosomal activity of mouse macrophages in vivo at a maximal effective stimulatory dose of 0.2 microg per mouse and is maintained over 10 days. This glycoside also shows a 30% stimulation of lysosomal activity in mouse macrophages in vitro at concentrations of 0.1-0.38 microg/mL. Frondoside A enhances macrophage phagocytosis of the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus in vitro at a maximal effective concentration of 0.001 microg/mL. Frondoside A stimulates reactive oxygen species formation in macrophages in vitro at a maximal effective concentration of 0.001 microg/mL. Frondoside A stimulates an increase in the number of antibody plaque-forming cells (normally B-cells in spleen) in vivo with a maximal stimulatory effect at a concentration of 0.2 microg per mouse (stimulatory index, 1.86). Frondoside A has a weak effect upon immunoglobulin (Ig) M production after immunization with sheep erythrocytes in mice. Frondoside A does not stimulate Ig production in mice and does not significantly enhance the ovalbumin-stimulated IgM and IgG antibody levels in ovalbumin-immunized mice. Hence frondoside A is an immunostimulant of cell-based immunity including phagocytosis without a significant effect on amplification of humoral immune activity or adjuvant properties. Therefore, frondoside A may provide curative and/or preventive treatment options against diseases wherein a depleted immune status contributes to the pathological processes.