At seeming safe concentrations, synergistic effects of PMand formaldehyde co-exposure induces Alzheimer-like changes in mouse brain.
Oncotarget. 2017 Nov 17 ;8(58):98567-98579. Epub 2017 Oct 6. PMID: 29228711
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a serious, common, global disease, yet its etiology and pathogenesis are incompletely understood. Air pollution is a multi-pollutants co-exposure system, which may affect brain. The indoor environment is where exposure to both air particulate matter (<2.5μm in diameter) (PM) and formaldehyde (FA) can occur simultaneously. Whether exposure to such a multi-pollutant (PMplus FA) mixture contributes to the development of AD, and whether there is a difference between exposure to PMor FA alone needs to be investigated. To determine the objective, C57BL/6J mice were exposed daily to PM(0.193 mg/Kg/day), FA (0.155 mg/Kg/day) or multi-pullutants (0.193 mg/Kg/day PMplus 0.155 mg/Kg/day FA) for one week. AD-like changes and upstream events were investigated after exposure. The results showed that exposure to PMor FA alone in this study had little or no adverse effects on the mouse brain. However, some AD-like pathologies were detected after multi-pullutants co-exposure. This work suggested PMplus FA co-exposure has more potential to induce AD-like pathologies than exposure alone. Oxidative stress and inflammation may be involved into the toxic mechanisms. Synergistic effects of co-exposure may induce the hygienic or safety standards of each pollutant not safe.