Serum vitamin D content is associated with semen parameters and serum testosterone levels in men.
Asian J Androl. 2020 Apr 28. Epub 2020 Apr 28. PMID: 32341213
Inari M Ciccone
The present study aimed to evaluate the influence of serum vitamin D levels on semen quality and testosterone levels. This is a cross-sectional study conducted at Androscience, Science and Innovation Center in Andrology and High-Complex Clinical and Andrology Laboratory in Sao Paulo, Brazil, with 508 male patients, aged 18-60 years, from 2007 to 2017. Seminal parameters and serum sexual hormones were correlated with serum vitamin D concentrations in 260 men selected by strict selection criteria. Patients were divided into normozoospermic group (NZG, n = 124) and a group with seminal abnormalities (SAG, n = 136). Evaluation included complete physical examination, past medical history, habits and lifestyle factors, two complete seminal analysis with sperm functional tests, serum levels of 25-hydroxy-vitamin D(25(OH)VD), total and free testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), total cholesterol, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index, and karyotype. The mean concentration of 25(OH)VDwas significantly lower in the SAG (P<0.001) and positively correlated with all baseline seminal parameters and total testosterone levels. In addition, serum vitamin Dconcentration was found to be positively correlated with sperm concentration (β= 2.103; P<0.001), total number of spermatozoa with progressive motility (β = 2.069; P = 0.003), total number of motile spermatozoa (β = 2.571; P = 0.015), and strict morphology (β = 0.056; P = 0.006), regardless of other variables. This is the first comparative study to address the issue of serum vitamin Dcontent between normozoospermic patients and those with sperm abnormalities. It clearly demonstrates a direct and positive relationship between serum vitamin D level and overall semen quality, male reproductive potential, and testosterone levels.