Silymarin ameliorates diabetes-induced proangiogenic response in brain endothelial cells. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Silymarin Ameliorates Diabetes-Induced Proangiogenic Response in Brain Endothelial Cells through a GSK-3β Inhibition-Induced Reduction of VEGF Release.
J Diabetes Res. 2017 ;2017:2537216. Epub 2017 Oct 25. PMID: 29209632
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Additionally, it was found to induce a dysfunctional angiogenic response in the brain that was attributed to oxidative stress. Milk thistle seed extract (silymarin) has potent antioxidant properties, though its potential use in ameliorating diabetes-induced aberrant brain angiogenesis is unknown. Glycogen synthase kinase-3β is a regulator of angiogenesis that is upregulated by diabetes. Its involvement in diabetes-induced angiogenesis is unknown. To evaluate the potential of silymarin to ameliorate diabetes-induced aberrant angiogenesis, human brain endothelial cells (HBEC-5i) were treated with 50 μg/mL advancedglycation end (AGE) products in the presence or absence of silymarin (50, 100 μM). The angiogenic potential of HBEC-5i was evaluated in terms of migration and in vitro tube formation capacities. The involvement of GSK-3β was also evaluated. AGE significantly increased the migration and tube formation rates of HBEC-5i by about onefold (p = 0.0001). Silymarin reduced AGE-induced migration in a dose-dependent manner where 50 μM reduced migration by about 50%, whereas the 100 μM completely inhibited AGE-induced migration. Similarly, silymarin 50 μg/mL blunted AGE-induced tube formation (p = 0.001). This effect was mediated through a GSK-3β-dependent inhibition of VEGF release. In conclusion, silymarin inhibits AGE-induced aberrant angiogenesis in a GSK-3β-mediated inhibition of VEGF release.