Modulatory Effect of Silymarin on Apoptosis in Testosterone -Induced Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia in Rats.
Pathol Oncol Res. 2020 Jan 4. Epub 2020 Jan 4. PMID: 31902118
Nahla E El-Ashmawy
Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is considered a normal part of the aging process in men, and is characterized by an imbalance between cell proliferation and apoptosis. Our study aimed to investigate the potential protective role of silymarin (SIL) against testosterone-induced BPH in rats and to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying SIL pro-apoptotic and anti-proliferative effects. Forty adult male Wistar rats were divided equally into four groups: control group, BPH group (3 mg/kg testosterone propionate, s.c. for 14 days, SIL group (50 mg/kg SIL, orally, once daily concomitantly with 3 mg/kg testosterone propionate s.c.) and inhibitor group (50 mg/kg SIL orally concomitantly with 3 mg/kg testosterone, s.c. and 0.5 mg/rat Z-VAD-FMK, i.p.). Silymarin induced caspase-dependent apoptosis in BPH as SIL significantly reduced prostatic Bcl-2 protein and increased Bax protein concentration. Also, SIL down-regulated survivin (Inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAPs) gene expression in rat prostate assisting mainly caspase-dependent pathway. Silymarin significantly decreased cytochrome-c cytosolic concentration and increased caspase 3 activity compared to BPH group. Silymarin significantly increased the content of p27/(Cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor (CDKIs) promoting cell cycle arrest. The histological features of BPH such as hypertrophy, papillary projections formation, improved in SIL group. Silymarin showed a significant anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic role in BPH and accordingly it could be effectively and safely used as a treatment tool in cases of BPH or prostatic disorders.