Single and joint effects of chronic exposure to chlorpyrifos and glyphosate based pesticides on structural biomarkers in Cnesterodon decemmaculatus.
Chemosphere. 2019 Jul 9 ;236:124311. Epub 2019 Jul 9. PMID: 31310974
Alejo Fabian Bonifacio
Worldwide freshwater bodies that cross agricultural or urban areas are exposed to mixtures of xenobiotics. In particular, pesticides are usually part of these mixtures and could come into direct or indirect contact with biota and therefore, organisms have to cope with this altered scenario and the detrimental effects of these substances. Commercial formulations of chlorpyrifos and glyphosate, and their mixtures were evaluated using a set of biomarkers in the native fish C. decemmaculatus exposed to relevant environmentally pesticides concentrations. The biomarkers measured were: histopathological indices and tissue ultrastructure in liver and nuclear abnormalities and micronuclei in erythrocytes. During 42 days adult females were exposed to the following concentrations of Clorfox and Roundup Max (chlorpyrifos and glyphosate, respectively): 0.84 nl/l and 8.4 nl/l of Clorfox (CF), 0.2 and 2 mg/l of Roundup Max (RM) and all the combinations of these concentrations. Being the low concentrations of both pesticides environmentally relevant. Nuclear abnormalities of erythrocytes were registered under CF, RM and only one mixture. Histological inflammatory alterations increased in individuals exposed to CF and two mixtures. Finally, some pesticide combinations increased the circulatory alterations in liver. Ultrastructural changes in hepatocytes were registered at all the pesticide treatments. The different biomarker responses showed in the mixtures treatments reflected complex interactions, showing the mixture of the low concentrations of both pesticides (the environmentally relevant), potentiated effects. According to our results the presence of these substances in freshwaters could impose important risks for natural populations by causing deleterious effects on the native fish species C. decemmaculatus.