The flavonoid-rich fraction from rhizomes of Smilax glabra Roxb. ameliorates renal oxidative stress and inflammation in uric acid nephropathy rats through promoting uric acid excretion.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2019 Mar ;111:162-168. Epub 2018 Dec 20. PMID: 30579255
Uric acid metabolic disorder is considered to be the main pathogenesis of uric acid nephropathy (UN). Smilax glabra Roxb. is a traditional Chinese herb which has been used in the treatment of gout, but the mechanism was unclear. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of the flavonoid-rich fraction from rhizomes of Smilax glabra Roxb. (SGF) on uric acid nephropathy rats and its underlying mechanisms of promoting uric acid excretion. Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were induced by high purine diet (yeast pellets + adenine) for 5 weeks. Rats were orally treated with SGF or allopurinol daily. The biochemical parameters and enzymes in different treated rats were determined by commercial kits. Kidney pathology was visualized using optical microscopy and electron microscopy. Renal inflammatory factors weredetected by ELISA. Renal fibrosis factors and uric acid transporters were analyzed by real time RT-PCR and western blot. The results showed that SGF significantly improved kidney function. Histopathologic examination revealed that urate-induced renal damage was markedly reversed by SGF. Meanwhile, SGF treatment was also found to significantly inhibit renal oxidative stress. SGF treatment obviously suppressed the inflammatory factors of interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and the profibrotic factors of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), transforming growth factor-β(TGF-β) expression in UN rats. Moreover, SGF either significantly inhibited uric acid production or promoted uric acid excretion in UN rats. The mechanism of SGF promoting uric acid excretion was related to its increase of ATP-binding cassette transporter G2 (ABCG2), organic anion transporter 1 (OAT1), organic anion transporters 2 (OCT2) and organic cation/carnitine transporters 2 (OCTN2) expression. In conclusion, SGF could ameliorate renal oxidative stress and inflammation in UN rats through promoting uric acid excretion.