Girls' early sweetened carbonated beverage intake predicts different patterns of beverage and nutrient intake across childhood and adolescence.
J Am Diet Assoc. 2010 Apr;110(4):543-50. PMID: 20338280
The Center for Childhood Obesity Research, 129 Noll Laboratory, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA.
BACKGROUND: Information is limited on persistence of early beverage patterns throughout childhood and adolescence and their influence on long-term dietary intake. OBJECTIVE: To describe changes in beverage intake during childhood and assess beverage and nutrient intake from ages 5 to 15 years among girls who were consuming or not consuming sweetened carbonated beverages (soda) at age 5 years. DESIGN/SUBJECTS: Participants were part of a longitudinal study of non-Hispanic white girls and their parents (n=170) assessed biennially from age 5 to 15 years starting fall 1996. STATISTICAL ANALYSES: At each assessment, intakes of beverages (milk, fruit juice, fruit drinks, soda, and tea/coffee), energy, macronutrients, and micronutrients were assessed using three 24-hour recalls. Analyses of longitudinal changes and the interaction between beverage type and age were conducted using a mixed modeling approach. Girls were categorized as either soda consumers or nonconsumers at age 5 years. A mixed modeling approach was used to assess longitudinal differences and patterns of change in beverage and nutrient intake between soda consumption groups. RESULTS: Early differences in soda intake were predictive of later soda and milk intake and of differences in selected nutrients. Relative to girls who were not consuming soda beverages at age 5 years, soda consumers at age 5 years had higher subsequent soda intake, lower milk intake, higher intake of added sugars, lower protein, fiber, vitamin D, calcium, magnesium, phosphorous, and potassium from ages 5 to 15 years. CONCLUSIONS: Soda consumption at age 5 years predicted patterns of nutrient intake that persisted during childhood and into adolescence. Diets of soda consumers were higher in added sugars and lower in protein, fiber, calcium, vitamin D, magnesium, phosphorous, and potassium. Findings provide a more complex picture regarding the emergence of early beverage patterns and their predictive effects on nutrient intake across childhood and adolescence.